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Open Access Research

Efficacy of single dose of an inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) whole-virus vaccine with oil adjuvant in piglets

Kun Yang1, Wentao Li1, Huihui Niu2, Weidong Yan1, Xiaoli Liu1, Yang Wang1, Shuang Cheng1, Xugang Ku1 and Qigai He1*

Author Affiliations

1 State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China

2 Institute of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China

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Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2012, 54:67  doi:10.1186/1751-0147-54-67

Published: 21 November 2012

Abstract

Background

Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with PCV2 is one of the most costly diseases currently faced by the swine industry. The development of effective vaccines against PCV2 infection has been accepted as an important strategy in the prophylaxis of PMWS.

Methods

In the present study, a PK-15 cell-adapted formalin-inactivated prototype vaccine candidate was prepared using a strain of PCV2 from China. Inactivation of the virus was accomplished using a standard formalin inactivation protocol. The protective properties of the inactivated PCV2 vaccine were evaluated in piglets. Ten 28-day-old pigs were randomly assigned to two groups, each with five. Group 1 was vaccinated intramuscularly with the inactivated virus preparation; Group 2 received sterile PBS as a placebo. By 28 days post-vaccination (DPV), Groups 1 and 2 were challenged intranasally and intramuscularly with 5 × 107 TCID50 of a virulent PCV2 isolate.

Results

The vaccinated pigs seroconverted to PCV2 and had high levels of serum antibodies to PCV2 at 28 days after vaccination, whereas the control pigs remained seronegative. No significant signs of clinical disease were recorded following the challenge with PCV2, but moderate amounts of PCV2 antigen were detected in most lymphoid organs of the control pigs. PCV2 was detected in two out of the five vaccinated pigs. Furthermore, pathological lesions and viremia were milder in the vaccinated group.

Conclusions

The obtained results indicate that the inactivated PCV2 virus vaccine with an oil adjuvant induce an immunological response in pigs that appears to provide protection from infection with PCV2. The vaccine, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a vaccine aimed to protect pigs from developing PMWS.

Keywords:
Porcine circovirus type 2; Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome; Single-dose immunization; Formalin-inactivated vaccine